Germinating P.roqueforti spores.jpg 976 × 708; 231 KB. You can also use an ounce of your favorite blue cheese to create a new wheel of Blue cheese. Draw different pairs of isomers to illustrate the chain isomerism, positional isomerism, and functional group isomerism. However, the strains of Penicillium that are used in cheesemaking are different to the ones in the drug, and don’t have any significant antibiotic properties to begin with. As penicilium roqueforti mould decomposes cheese, its enzymes soften the cheese’s flesh. The unopened mould will keep for up to 2 years when stored in a freezer. When I do it’s normally as a gift for my father in law who LOVES a good stinky cheese. (Alexander Fleming, 1881–1955, Scottish bacteriologist). Or at least it’s in your future plans. The fact that blue-veined cheeses have been consumed for centuries without apparent ill effect suggests that the hazard to human health is minimal or nonexistent. Blue cheese has a blue or blue-green mold running through it called Penicillium roqueforti. I like it not too strong, so aging at 6 weeks is perfect for me. Penicillium caseifulvum and Penicillium solitum are potential candidates for fermenting foods, as they are nontoxic and have been found on food products of high quality. P.L.H. Fig. Besides Penicillium Roqueforti, you probably have all the ingredients for this Vegan Blue Cheese! And who doesn’t want to save money on cultures? - Penicillium roqueforti - Thom - 1906.png 939 × 828; 558 KB. In southeastern Australia a common infertility syndrome, including abortion and fetal mummification, has been ascribed to an onion-like weed, Romulea rosea. DOI: 10.1080/10408397609527222. The jar does not need to be refrigerated and the penicillium roqueforti spores will last for years. Blue cheese, or bleu cheese, is a cow's milk that is usually introduced with penicillin in the beginning, but sometimes it … L.B. $10.99. If penicillium roqueforti spores were grown on a medium containing wheat, and the spores contained wheat protein, then under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) wheat would have to be listed on the label of a blue cheese. Join the discussion over at the Curd Nerd Forum. $18.95. Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium glaucum, which are the blue moulds used for cheese, cannot produce these toxins in cheese. Nonetheless, it is preferable from a food safety perspective to use P. roqueforti strains that do not produce secondary metabolites or mycotoxins as starter cultures in cheese manufacturing. Penicillium roqueforti growing through ewe's milk creates Roquefort blue cheese. T. repens (white clover) does not normally contain estrogens, but when heavily infested with fungi it may contain significant amounts. Many P. roqueforti strains are known to be very tolerant to weak acid preservatives, being able to grow in the presence of 0.5% acetic acid and in the presence of 9000 ppm sorbate. Initially, on the cheese, there was a growth of what appeared to be geotrichum. Penicillium roqueforti for 100 l milk. Members of the genus produce penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body. Fungal colonies usually reach 40–70 mm within 14 d on Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA) and malt extract agar (MEA) media, and present a typical blue–green color associated with conidia (asexual spore) production. I love Saint Agur cheese anyone know how to make it? As I said, blues aren’t my favourite cheeses, therefore I don’t make them often. Looking For Something Specific? Penicillium roqueforti grows well at much lower O2 levels than those required by other molds, and, for this reason, Blue cheeses are generally pierced after brining to allow a small amount of O2 to diffuse into the center of the cheese to promote mold development. Penicillium species, especially Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium camemberti, and Penicillium nalgiovense, are used in the production of blue cheeses, white cheeses, and mold-fermented meat sausages. Shelf Life and Storage Information It’s also way cheaper than buying (I have about 2-3oz of powder, which just cost me $5 in amazing rye bread -most of which I got to enjoy – . Growth of the fungus is stimulated at low salt concentrations, with 1% salt (NaCl) being the concentration with the highest stimulating effect. Other blue-veined cheeses that contain these molds are Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton, Brie, and Camembert cheese. In blue cheese, proteases can also originate from other sources such as milk (eg, plasmin and protease peptones) and rennet (breaking down αS1-casein to produce peptides) or other microorganisms (LAB, NSLAB, yeasts, and other mold species). Patulin, penicillic acid, and citrinin have been observed only in wild-type isolates of the organism and not in commercial strains, nor in any cheese produced by commercial strains. It is used in the production of Stilton and Roquefort and for the production of the blue mould on surface ripened and veined cheeses. Blauschimmelkäse IMGP5469 wp.jpg 3,000 × 2,008; 1.71 MB. E. Coton, ... M. Coton, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2020. Varying enzymatic activity gives flavors from mild to sharp/piquant. It is now Tuesday and I have blue mould developing on the outside of the cheese. C R C Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1976, 8 (2) , 191-228. CHR Hansen PR1 Roqueforti for Firm Texture Blue Cheese,10 Units 5.0 out of 5 stars 2. I was delighted to find it growing new blue mold after a couple of weeks. $26.99. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus from the family Trichocomaceae.Widespread in nature, it can be isolated from soil, decaying organic matter, and plants. Penicillium Roqueforti is essential in the ripening process of bleu cheese by: Providing characteristic appearance of the cheese. Penicillium Roqueforti is essential in the ripening process of bleu cheese by: Providing characteristic appearance of the cheese. buffered water (8 oz. When making Blue cheese at home, the standard protocol involves you ordering “pure” strains of Penicillium roqueforti from our cheesemaking supply store. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus from the family Trichocomaceae.Widespread in nature, it can be isolated from soil, decaying organic matter, and plants. The low pH of freshly made cheese is therefore partially selective for the growth of yeasts and molds. Penicillium roqueforti is a very fast-growing blue mold culture that produces a blue or blue-green (depending on strain) marbled interior with a piquant aroma and creamy texture in blue mold cheeses such as Roquefort, Danish blue, Gorgonzola and Stilton. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), the widespread genus contains over 300 species. It was hugely informative and I learned a lot. To be specific, Penicillium molds are found in Blue cheese. Now I haven’t tried it myself yet. Figure 14. Danish blue cheese; Gorgonzola cheese; TAXONOMY. But I’m all for ways to get back to the traditional ways of making cheese, and this ‘recipe’ involves growing your own blue mold spores, similar to how it would have been done traditionally, rather than using a mass produced culture. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1976, 18 (7) , 909-919. Yeasts and molds are generally heat-sensitive and are killed by pasteurization. "Blue cheese is a general classification of cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, or blue-grey mold and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria." How To Use Bread Mold Penicillium Roquerforti To Make Blue Cheese. Penicillium roqueforti strains isolated from Blue cheeses are known to produce both the mycotoxins PR toxin (7-acetoxy-5,6-epoxy-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydrocarboxaldehyde) and roquefortine, which have also been shown to be present in cheese. Cashews can be processed to be used to make Blue cheese using the Vegan Blue mold Penicillium Roqueforti PRB6 strain. Ustilago hordei (barley smut) fungus is thought to be toxic to farm animals; feeding it to experimental animals has been associated with infertility and stillbirths. Bullerman, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003, Penicillium roqueforti has been shown to produce several toxic compounds, including roquefortine, PR toxin, and festuclavine (Figure 14). Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. $26.99. The molds that are specially found in blue cheese are called Penicillium roqueforti and Penicillium glaucum. Roquefortine has been recovered from blue cheese and was associated with the mold mycelia rather than the nonmoldy areas of the cheese. Yeasts and molds grow much better than bacteria at the pH of cheese, and for this reason they are the first microorganisms to grow on the cheese surface. Toxicities of PR toxin and roquefortine are low. $26.99. (2011) 19,402. DOI: 10.1002/bit.260180704. PV is a very fast growing blue mould with strong proteolytic and lipolitic activity and strong tolerance to salts. The process takes anywhere from 4 weeks and up. $18.95. Penicillium roqueforti is used as a fungal starter culture for the production of a number of blue-veined cheeses, with both proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes produced by the fungus involved in cheese ripening and flavor production. Brevibacterium linens does not grow at a pH value below 6.0; whether this is true of the other bacteria found on the surface of cheese has not been determined. If you make a blue cheese, you need this culture. P. roqueforti grows in the air spaces between the incompletely fused curd particles and is responsible for the blue veins that run throughout Blue cheese, whereas P. camemberti grows as a compact, fluffy mass on the surface of Camembert and Brie cheese. Penicillium fungi are known as the source of antibiotics - a convenient property accidentally discovered by microbiologist Alexander Fleming back in in 1928. Stay Updated With Our Delicious Home Cheese Making Tips, How To Make Blue Cheese Cultures (Penicillium Roqueforti). It is also a psychrophile and grows vigorously at temperatures as low as 4 °C, but not above 35 °C. Penicillium One of a range of common blue-green moulds of the genus Penicillium , that grow on decaying fruits and ripening cheese. 118 likes. I last wrote about the blue cheese course I attended at the School of Artisan Food. Penicillium roqueforti strains isolated from Blue cheeses are known to produce both the mycotoxins PR toxin (7-acetoxy-5,6-epoxy-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydrocarboxaldehyde) and roquefortine, which have also been shown to be present in cheese. Datasheets/specifications can be emailed upon request. They are however not thought to pose a significant health risk to consumers as they are quite unstable in cheese. Standard strength suitable for mild taste. Then pore the water into the milk through a strainer, then simply begin your blue cheese … 2. Smear from ripened cheese, the so-called ‘old’ smear, may also be used, but this can also be a source of pathogens, especially listeria. Alejandro Fernandez. Several methods of inoculation are used. However, the highest proteolytic activity in blue cheese is described to be due to P. roqueforti enzyme activities and is usually correlated to mold outgrowth when the mold actually becomes visible in the cheese. or Lactobacillus sp. April 21, 2020 at 5:11 pm ... Penicillium roqueforti … Penicillium Roqueforti for development of blue, green or bluish green veins in Blue cheese or Cambozola cheeses. Penicillium nalgiovense is used to improve the taste of sausages and hams, and to prevent colonization by other moulds and bacteria. Enhancement of cheese flavors with microbial esterases. Penicillium Roqueforti (PV) is used to ripen and give flavor to a variety of blue cheese including Gorgonzola, and Stilton. A.A. Hayaloglu, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. Country: France Issued: 2006-03-27 Stamp: Penicillium roqueforti. Atypical wild strains of P. roqueforti have been shown to produce patulin and penicillic acid simultaneously, patulin alone, patulin plus citrinin, and mycophenolic acid. Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti are the molds on Camembert, Brie, Roquefort, and many other cheeses. PRB6 produces a very strong blue cheese aroma. Penicillium roqueforti powder to make vegan blue cheese at home. The fungus also produces mycotoxins (fungal toxins) that give blue cheese its extraordinary taste, and sometimes make your mouth numb! Now I’m wondering what to do with the cheese if the blue doesn’t take. Why Doesn’t My Mozzarella Stretch Properly? As such, the wild isolates represent no greater significance than any other toxinogenic isolates of other species. Nowadays, it is felt that the softening of these cheeses is due principally to the increase in pH on the surface early in ripening, which causes the curd to solubilize and soften. Penicillium roqueforti. A. Abbas, A.D.W. Blue or bleu cheese has the mold Penicillium added to it, so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, blue-gray, or blue-green mold. This cheese is also made in other parts of Lombardy and in Piedmont and Emilia-Romagna. McSweeney, ... T.P. Indeed, P. roqueforti secretes aspartyl protease and metalloproteases that completely hydrolyze caseins thereby releasing different peptides including these bitter peptides (Ardö, 2011). Blue or bleu cheese has the mold Penicillium added to it, so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, blue-gray, or blue-green mold. Both mold- and bacterial-ripened cheeses are then ripened at 10–15 °C to promote microbial growth and activity, and at a high relative humidity to prevent loss of moisture from the cheese surface. We respect your privacy and take protecting it seriously. Pop. The fungus has the lowest oxygen requirements for growth of any Penicillium species. In Veterinary Medicine (Eleventh Edition), 2017. Varying enzymatic activity gives flavors from mild to sharp/piquant. Dobson, in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), 2011. Martín, M. Coton, in Fermented Foods in Health and Disease Prevention, 2017. I bought some nice gorgonzola cheese and mixed it with soured heavy cream for a dip. This blue mold powder creates an intense blue-green marbled interior, piquant aroma and creamy consistency. Penicillium roqueforti is used in the production of blue mould cheeses such as Stilton, Roquefort, Danish Blue and Gorgonzola.. PV is a very fast growing blue mould with strong proteolytic and lipolitic activity and strong tolerance to salts. The significance of the various toxins produced by P. roqueforti to public health is not clear, particularly in view of the limited toxicological information available on these compounds. They are however not thought to pose a significant health risk to consumers as they are quite unstable in cheese. Other articles where Penicillium roqueforti is discussed: Gorgonzola: …characteristic greenish blue mold (Penicillium roqueforti). Some have great success, others are finding it a bit more challenging. Chemical structures of some P. roqueforti toxins. Penicillium roqueforti also produces a number of antibiotics, but is most famous for its use in the food industry.. Blue cheese. Underneath the umbrella of fungi are yeasts and molds. Leave the cheese and bread in an airtight container for two weeks. Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) What Is It And When Should You Use It? Not suitable for Vegans. Do you take the mould off the bread and dehydrate it? Only 6 left in stock - order soon. Penicillium roqueforti and P. camemberti also produce proteinases, and proteolysis, especially by P. camemberti, is the dominant activity in Camembert and Brie cheeses. The milk for the mold-ripened varieties, namely, Blue, Camembert, and Brie, is inoculated with pure cultures of the relevant species of Penicillium at the same time as the starters. Mesophilic Cheese Starter Culture | Cultures for Health | Versatile, Non GMO, Gluten-Free 4.4 out of 5 stars 161. Roquefortine has been recovered from blue cheese and was associated with the mold mycelia rather than the nonmoldy areas of the cheese. These cheeses soften from the outside to the inside, and originally it was thought that this was due mainly to the proteolytic activity of P. camemberti. The process takes anywhere from 4 weeks and up. Search Here: QA9 – Can You Use Existing Cheese As Cultures For New Cheese? The strong type has a fast protease rate, promoting a faster flavour development. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Interestingly, P. roqueforti also possesses several exopeptidases and an extracellular acid carboxypeptidase that may be involved in bitter peptide breakdown as well as in degrading other peptides (Cantor et al., 2004). Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. Penicillium roqueforti for 100 l milk. I have to say that blues aren’t my favourite cheese, but I can certainly enjoy the right one when I’m in the mood. THERAPEUTIC. We would love to hear from you! Once the growth of those special Penicillium Roqueforti spores, has consumed the bread in blueish-green mold the bread is ready to be dried. There is a suspicion that the disease may be caused by a toxin produced by a fungus, Helminthosporium biseptatum, which grows on the weed. Cultures of Penicillium roqueforti [137] and P. camemberti [128] have been used for a long time in the manufacture of various types of blue-veined and white surface-mould cheeses. Use a pea sized piece of penicillium bread mold to every 3.7L or gallon of milk. Roqueforti & blue cheese. The dominant molds in cheese are Penicillium roqueforti in Blue cheeses (e.g., Stilton, Roquefort, and Gorganzola) and Penicillium camemberti in surface mold-ripened cheeses (e.g., Camembert and Brie). Country: Italy Issued: 2011-03-25 Stamp: Penicillium roqueforti. It allows you to have blue cheese cultures on hand for when you make your next blue cheese at home. Dobson, in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), 2011. J.C. Frisvad, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014. Useful fungus. starter cultures are involved in hydrolyzing the peptides produced by rennet and plasmin with limited amino acid release during the first weeks of ripening (Cantor et al., 2004). A. Bianchini, L.B. Enzymes of penicillium roqueforti involved in the biosynthesis of cheese flavor. I love the whole concept of taking one thing and making something just as good or even better as a by product. Molds are obligate aerobes and, therefore, require oxygen for growth. I just got it (during quarantine). A toxic factor in the fat of Roquefort cheese that caused severe injury to the liver and other organs of rats has been reported. You might therefore think that eating too much blue cheese could have a similar effect to antibiotic resistance, by overexposing the bacteria in your body to Penicillium. Of course the final cheese won’t be fully vegan though. The mould is highly proteolytic (it easily breaks down proteins). Mix the bread with a quarter cup of water to release the spores. Author information: (1)Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science , Technische Universität München , Lise-Meitner-Strasse 34 , D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan , … Roquefortine is a neurotoxin reported to cause convulsive seizures, liver damage, and hemorrhage in the digestive tract in mice. The great thing is that like most cheese types, you can easily buy the cultures you need to make blue cheese. PR toxin apparently reacts with cheese components and is neutralized. Is this normal at this stage? Ensuring to flip the bread so it fully dries. Roqueforti & blue cheese. Datasheets/specifications can be emailed upon request. But that’s not how it works. Wipe off excess moisture from the container, to avoid the bread going soggy. Penicillium roqueforti produces indole diterpenoids and sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins known as PR toxin, which can also pose a threat to feed stocks (Brase, Encinas, Keck, & Nising, 2009). This was totally unplanned but I am happy! Thanks for commenting Patrick and enjoy those blues! Danisco PRB6, 5 Doses, Liquid (Lactose free) is blue-green hyptonic that produces a traditional Gorgonzola, Stilton, Bleu d’ Auvergne or Fourme d’Ambert style blue cheeses. 72 Penicillium roqueforti, a filamentous fungus used in the dairy industry to impart the typical 73 veins and flavor of blue cheeses, has recently emerged as an excellent model for studying adaptive 74 divergence (Cheeseman et al., 2014; Ropars et al., 2015). Leave the container opened for a few days allowing the bread to dry. water with 1/8 tsp. The fact that blue-veined cheeses have been consumed for centuries without any apparent ill effect suggests that the hazard to human health is minimal or nonexistent. Penicillium roqueforti mould (and its enzymes) work to make the unique flavour and texture in blue cheese by doing several key things to the cheese curd, to give blue cheese is texture and piquancy: It raises the pH (acidity) of the cheese helping with texture and flavour. It depends on how strong you want your Vegan Blue Cheese to be. But in another cost saving tip, and so as to provide you with a new cheese making challenge, I want to share a resource with you that tells you how you can cultivate your own free source of blue molds (Penicillium Roqueforti). Today some authentic Roqueforts are made in Corsica, but all still undergo final aging in the limestone caves of Roquefort near Toulouse in southern France, where the cool and humid atmosphere promotes growth of the mold Penicillium roqueforti. They are not considered starter cultures, as they have no role in acid production. Then pore the water into the milk through a strainer, then simply begin your blue cheese recipe. Description. Rennet is actually considered to be the main enzyme mixture involved in casein breakdown before P. roqueforti growth and during outgrowth (Hewedi and Fox, 1984). This cheese is also made in other parts of Lombardy and in Piedmont and Emilia-Romagna. Characteristic properties are a mild and pleasant aroma with an excellent consistency and long shelf life. Do you have any questions or comments about cultivating your own blue mold? The fungus has been a constituent of Roquefort, Stilton, Danish blue, Cabrales, Gorgonzola, and most other blue cheeses. I tried this recently and it worked pretty well. Finally, proteolytic activities and the levels of enzymes produced among P. roqueforti strains appear to be highly variable, which could be an important trait to consider for starter or adjunct culture strain selection in the future. I like it not too strong, so aging at 6 weeks is perfect for me. Mix the bread with a quarter cup of water to release the spores. Use a pea sized piece of penicillium bread mold to every 3.7L or gallon of milk. Some blue cheeses are injected with spores before the curds form and others have spores mixed in with the curds after they form. Some use a mould I’d never heard of – Penicillium glaucum. Blue cheese is a generic term used to describe cheese produced with pasteurized cow's, sheep's, or goat's milk and ripened with cultures of the mold penicillium. Cashews are the most popular product to use as it makes a nice Camembert or Brie cheese using Penicillium candidum HP-6 to create that soft white mold bloom. Only 5 left in stock - order soon. Starters containing high numbers of citrate-utilizing Lc. One of the things that impressed me was that not all types of Penicillium roqueforti in blue cheeses are the same and not all blue cheeses even contain Penicillium roqueforti. It’s possible, use about a tbsp of blue cheese instead of the penicillium roqueforti. The mould powder is presented in a sterile pack, containing enough monocultured P. Roquefortii to process 500 litres of milk. Tyrosine Induced Metabolome Alterations of Penicillium roqueforti and Quantitation of Secondary Key Metabolites in Blue-Mold Cheese. Ingredients: Maltodextrin, Penicillium roqueforti. They can be pretty expensive if you’re making cheese regularly. Name isomers based on IUPAC nomenclature. Monitor the spread of the mold on the bread and flip it every couple of days. Contributing to fast growth rate, strong blue cheese flavor, blue-green color, and creamy consistency. Penicillium roqueforti is a very fast-growing blue mold culture that produces a blue or blue-green (depending on strain) marbled interior with a piquant aroma and creamy texture in blue mold cheeses such as Roquefort, Danish blue, Gorgonzola and Stilton. In this article you will learn step by step how to make your own blue cheese culture (Penicillium Roqueforti) at home. In addition, blue cheese contains goat’s milk rather than cow’s milk, which is healthier in several ways. That was fine by me though, as it kept away all the other molds until the blue took hold (within 7 days, it had a pretty good growth on the surface). It sometimes looks almost like the mold has been injected in the cheese. The toxicity of PR toxin and roquefortine are low. It’s possible, use about a tbsp of blue cheese instead of the penicillium roqueforti. The mold is, in fact, related to penicillin and fights harmful bacteria in the body. A. Abbas, A.D.W. Thanks David. P. roqueforti grows well at much lower oxygen levels than those required by other molds, and, for this reason, Blue cheeses are generally pierced after brining to allow a small amount of oxygen to diffuse into the center of the cheese to promote mold development. The metabolism of a blue mold, Penicillium Roqueforti transforms fatty acids into compounds called 2-heptanone that smells similar to blue cheese. Hammerl R(1), Frank O(1), Dietz M(1), Hirschmann J(1), Hofmann T(1)(2). It was hugely informative and I learned a lot. salt and 1/8 tsp. Roquefort: The story of the 600-year-old mouldy French cheese … Even though I haven’t tested whether this works or not I wanted to share it with you so that you can try it, and perhaps come up with your own world famous blue. Aside from these two very important inoculants, cultures from … Though blue cheese doesn’t produce the hallucinogenic effects of other well-known fungi, it is believed to have a powerful effect on our dreams. I last wrote about the blue cheese course I attended at the School of Artisan Food.. We will only use the information provided to send you Curd Nerd updates. Roquefortine is a neurotoxin that reportedly causes convulsive seizures, liver damage, and hemorrhage in the digestive tract in mice. Blue cheese mould (Penicillum roqueforti) Penicillium roqueforti is used in the production of Blue Cheeses. While noseying around the internet at what other cheese makers are writing about I found this article about how to make your own Penicillium roqueforti – blue cheese mold. sugar) and allow the solution to sit for 16 hours at fridge temperature before use. I made a batch of blue cheese on Saturday using the culture from the sourdough bread. Danisco PRB6, 5 Doses, Liquid (Lactose free) is blue-green hyptonic that produces a traditional Gorgonzola, Stilton, Bleu d’ Auvergne or Fourme d’Ambert style blue cheeses. April 21, 2020 at 5:11 pm . Enough for about 10kg of raw cashews. Penicillium roqueforti is used as a fungal adjunct culture for the production of blue-veined cheeses worldwide. DNA-based molecular techniques have been developed and applied in the detection and identification of Penicillium species employed in cheese manufacture. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123744074003630, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847300002305, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965010921, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X00821X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128023099000121, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702052460000188, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845690601500119, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847300002494, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123744074000765, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965006752, Yeasts and Molds | Penicillium roqueforti, Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), Yeasts and Molds: Penicillium roqueforti☆, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Fermented Foods in Health and Disease Prevention, Grippon, 1993; Ardö, 2001; Cantor et al., 2004, Gripon et al., 1977; Le Bars and Grippon, 1981, Diseases Primarily Affecting the Reproductive System, PENICILLIUM | Penicillium/Penicillia in Food Production.
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