Situated between land and sea, the mangrove forest contains many different species which, depending on their location, are more or less salt tolerant. These are the intangible values of the mangrove ecosystem, which are valued by a group within society (intrinsic): These different kinds of values create a certain “willingness to pay” for the above mentioned costs. There are a lot of benefits related to mangrove restoration (as stated before), which could, in theory, be commercially exploited. about 200–220ha showed successful mangrove restoration. Physical A lot of expertise on mangrove restoration has been gained during the past decades. Time series photographs of a hydrologic mangrove restoration project at West Lake Park, Hollywood, FL, USA (A) Time Zero, July 1989, (B) Time Zero + 28 months, November 1991 and … Using this approach, communities implement mangrove restoration on a local scale with improved understanding of the factors influencing mangrove restoration, so failures can be minimized, costs are low, and implementation is sustainable. Therefore, I have developed a rapid assessment monitoring protocol to be incorporated as part of mangrove restoration projects in Southeast Asia in order to evaluate the success of each project and approach and adaptively manage these over time. [G M E Perillo;] -- Coastal Wetlands, Second Edition: An Integrated and Ecosystem Approach provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide. This will preserve habitats and ecosystems into the future. World mangrove distribution in 2000 (Wikipedia, 2013), Key words: Mangroves, working with natureDelta Facts: Sand Nourishment, Managed Realignment. Since 2002 CEC has been part of a team of coastal scientists and engineers working on the … Morrison (1990) defines restoration as follows: ”restoration is the re-introduction and re-establishment of community-like groupings of native species to sites which can reasonably be expected to sustain them, with the resultant vegetation demonstrating aesthetic and dynamic characteristics of the natural communities on which they are based”. Wetlands International, IUCN Netherlands and Oxfam Novib state that sustainable aquaculture production can help in restoring and conservation mangrove ecosystems. Natural regeneration is preferred, as the resulted forest is supposed to be more like the original forest (, Excavation or fill; In order for mangroves to grow, the restoration site needs to have a certain slope and a very exact tidal elevation to insure that the hydrology for the mangroves is correct. Wetlands International, IUCN Netherlands, Oxfam Novib – Sustianable Shrimp Production South East Asia. Restoration goals and objectives can vary, the primary goal often being re-establishment of habitat and functions that have been or would otherwise be lost. Large scale restoration activities are happening less. This step includes resolving land ownership/use issues necessary for ensuring long-term access to and conservation of the site. Robin successfully used the method to restore mangroves for over 30 years, and there have been a number of scientific papers written to support the technique which uses natural mangrove as a model or reference site . Working with Nature solutions contribute to multifunctional land use, such as nature development, flood risk management, fresh water supply, fisheries, recreation and infrastructure. Commercial exploitation of the different function of mangroves can play a role in the restoration activities. Different value drivers can be translated from the above mentioned values, for example: sustainable shrimp farming, commercial charcoal production, carbon capture for compensation, tourism opportunities. Nine out of 23 project sites (i.e. Other objectives could be landscape enhancement, sustainable productions of natural resources and protection of coastal areas (Morrisson, 1990). The principal objectives of this project are carbon emission reduction, climate adaptation, and biodiversity conservation. (Tri et al., 1998). This can be done for the same costs as planting alone. Through all of its work, MAP also raises awareness among those participating as to the importance of mangrove forests, whether participants are policy makers, local citizens, or NGOs. 1.1 Definition of Mangrove Planting alone; this restoration usually fails because of lack of attention for the physiological tolerances of mangroves to tidal inundation. This estimate includes planting costs and the cost of thinning (removal of certain plants to improve the growth rate and health of the remaining plants) from year six onwards. There is a massive mangrove die-back due to changes in the hydrological system, which is sometimes caused by natural events, but is more often the result of human interference with the natural hydrology (Erftemijer and Teunissen, 2009). Planting alone; inexpensive, from 100-200USD/ha. For more than 30 years, a community in the central Philippines has been actively involved in reforesting and protecting a mangrove site, which has expanded from 50 hectares to 220 hectares (124 acres to 544 acres). Biswas et al., (2009) identify 5 major causes: Figure 1. Therefore working with nature solutions require adaptive pathways for decision-making and an adaptive governance approach to facilitate implementation and maintenance of the working-with-nature solutions. Mangrove restoration projects were launched in Sri Lanka covering over 2,000 hectares. MAP has actively rehabilitated mangroves in Thailand and Indonesia, as part of post-tsunami recovery, while being involved in consulting on shoreline and mangrove restoration projects elsewhere. Robin successfully used the method to restore mangroves for over 30 years, and there have been a number of scientific papers written to support the technique which uses natural mangrove as a model or reference site. Through this local sedimentation capitation, coastal erosion is diminished and with that stabilization of the shorelines takes place, Large scale restoration activities are happening less. Furthermore, hand planting tends to ignore variations in soil elevation as planters attempt to keep propagules in straight lines. This natural regeneration avoids the costs of building and running an expensive nursery and planting out seedlings. The protective function of mangrove forest can be split up in wave attenuation, windbreak and stabilization of the shoreline by retaining sediment (Marchand, 2008). Onze website maakt gebruik van cookies om het gebruik en functionaliteit te waarborgen. The Mangrove Action Project (MAP) has adopted ‘Ecological Mangrove Restoration’ (EMR) as developed by Robin Lewis of Florida. The reasons for degradation in the first place are often not taken into account and restored before the planting activities start. For example, in Bangladesh 120,000 ha of mangroves have been planted since 1968 (, Many mangrove forests were lost during the last decades of the 20th century. Mangroves are very productive eco-systems; they provide benefits in different ways for many parties. They are located mostly along tropical coastlines and some subtropical coastlines (see figure 1). The advantage of this approach is that it is supported by the local population. Costs of mangrove restoration          The costs of mangrove restoration differ per type of mangrove restoration activity (as proposed by R. Lewis (2001)); The costs of mangrove restoration further depend on: Clearly, estimating the costs of mangrove restoration is complex and depends on a large number of factors. How MAP can help your organization implement CBEMR techniques, © 2020 Mangrove Action Project. Involving local stakeholders right from the outset, this process encourages the mitigation of mangrove stressors and the facilitation of natural regeneration where at all possible. Transportation distance between seedling source and planting site, Seedling mortality rate between collection and planting, Cost of raising specific species in nurseries before transplantation because they cannot be directly planted on mud flats due to strong wind and wave forces, Scale of post-implementation monitoring operations, Clearly, estimating the costs of mangrove restoration is complex and depends on a large number of factors. Situated between land and sea, the mangrove forest contains many different species which, depending on their location, are more or less salt tolerant. Such a plan can only be implemented successfully when the local community is aware of the benefits offered by mangrove forests; the lack of public awareness of the usefulness of mangrove forests for flood and erosion protection may hinder the realization of these plans. They work together with local partners in key mangrove countries, like Indonesia and Thailand, to promote this sustainable use. Next to the physical conditions, the governance setting around the restoration activities is very important. A study by these authors calculated the costs and benefits of a mangrove restoration project in Vietnam. Many effective mangrove restoration projects, like the mentioned one in South India, have been conducted through an approach of ‘learning by doing’. As stated before, much is learned by doing. Mangrove Action Project has implemented both CBEMR projects and trainings in various countries around the world, demonstrating an effective and sustainable approach to mangrove forest restoration. Furthermore, hand planting tends to ignore variations in soil elevation as planters attempt to keep propagules in straight lines. Mangroves are forests in intertidal areas, with medium height trees and shrubs. An illustrative example is the story of a village in India’s province Tamil Nadu, In an attempt to get in the Guinness World Records book the inhabitants planted 80.244 saplings of mangroves. several preferred methods for planning and implementing mangrove rehabilitation. There are different reasons for the reduction of mangroves. If interventions failed to work the first time, this iterative process encourages further study and work to ensure successful outcomes. Type and location of mangrove/wetland to be restored, expertise availability, and consequent chances of success, Degree of mangrove/wetland degradation and consequent restoration requirements, Intended degree of restoration (for example, it may not be possible to restore all the ecosystem functions of a wetland if it is located in a highly industrialised/urbanised environment and the planned restoration measures may be less ambitious), Land costs if land purchase is required to convert to wetlands. Pilot projects are running in for example Indonesia will provide further insights. The success of restoration through replanting seems to depend largely on availability of suitable sites and species and the involvement of the local community (Walters et al., 2008). Natural regeneration has the advantage of not only producing a more biodiverse mangrove, which increases its resilience to climate change, but also potentially more economical as it avoids the costs of nurseries and planting out. In addition, a crucial condition for successful restoration of mangrove forests is the support and involvement of the local community. Lewis, R. (2001), studied mangrove restoration activities and divided these into three categories: For successful mangrove restoration the following six steps are identified. Restoration of ecosystems will seldom reach this initial stage, but it will more often mean returning the ecosystem to a state of effectiveness (. Proper planning increases the success rate in this case. Deltares is concerned with several mangrove restoration projects. The objective of this project is to determine if, where, and how mangrove restoration should be implemented in Galveston Bay. Still, I was disheartened to hear that while the community may plant 1,000 mangroves in a month, development projects that transforms coastal wetlands could kill the same amount in just a day. Our experts offer extended training workshops that integrate and address the needs of multiple stakeholders into the process, creating a network that brings a lasting restorative effort, A key component of the CBEMR process is understanding and addressing the underlying ecological necessities of each individual area – fixing the underlying reasons for why mangroves haven’t naturally regenerated in the first place, Working with local communities – including in networking, educational, and livelihood training capacities – is integral to the success of projects, ensuring that those living within the area will be involved in the restoration efforts, countries MAP has given CBEMR trainings to worldwide, CBEMR demonstration sites across Thailand converting abandoned shrimp ponds back to healthy mangroves, villages involved in mangrove restoration knowledge exchange projects, Click the link below to download a PDF to learn a bit more about the CBEMR process, Locations of CBEMR trainings & restorations around the globe. Planting is only necessary if natural recolonization after the hydrologic restoration fails. Get this from a library! Working-with-nature is an approach in which optimal use is made of natural dynamics, Restoration is defined as ‘an act of putting or bringing back into a former, normal, or unimpaired state or condition’. In the Building with Nature research program guidelines are created for governing eco-engineering projects. Understand the autecology (individual species ecology) of the mangrove species at the site, in particular the patterns of reproduction, propagule distribution and successful seedling establishment. 11As stated above, the majority of mangrove “restoration” projects in this region of the world involve preparing seedlings in polybags or direct root propagules (usually of the genus Rhizophora), which are then hand-planted in straight rows at spacings of less than a metre. Select appropriate restoration areas through application of step 1-3 above, that are both likely to succeed in rehabilitating a forest ecosystem and are cost effective. Mangrove R/R projects implemented in the Asia and Australasia sectors of the IWP (a, b). Only in more developed countries this type of mangrove restoration activities could possibly be performed (. Since environmental impactsare an ongoing threat, to successfully restore an ecosystem implies not merely to recreate its former condition, but to strengthen … World mangrove distribution in 2000 (Wikipedia, 2013), Key words: Mangroves, working with nature. Work together with communities, organizations and local government in order to: The success of restoration through replanting largely depends on the availability of suitable sites and species (Walters et al., 2008). Meer informatie hierover vindt u op onze, Mangrove forests are estuarine wetlands, the area where the river meets the sea. There are different reasons for the reduction of mangroves. MAP also facilitates a CBEMR e-group with over 280 members worldwide sharing information and experience on more effective ways to rehabilitate mangroves. Roy R. “Robin” Lewis III, has over 40 years of experience in seagrass meadow and mangrove forest mapping, management and restoration in the USA and twenty-two foreign countries. The results of each R/R project, whether successful or not, should be published, as they are critical sources of data and information for further development of mangrove R/R practices and methods within the community of restoration ecology science. CBEMR starts with a detailed investigation of the proposed site to understand the reasons for previous mangrove losses and why mangroves are not naturally regenerating. The tidal movement of water is not disturbed by breakwaters; it is actually the roots of the mangroves that reduce the velocity of the water and capture sediment. The process will also hopefully demonstrate that local communities must preserve the mangroves they have, protect them, and manage them sustainably in order to secure a sustainable future for themselves. Mangroves flourish by a depositional regime of fine sediments. The MAP team engages in extensive discussions before the training to ensure the workshop is tailored to the needs of participants involved and the local mangrove conditions. An international database of mangrove restoration projects would reduce the likelihood that unsuccessful restoration projects would be repeated elsewhere. Many mangrove forests were lost during the last decades of the 20th century. This research, combined with a study of a nearby natural healthy mangrove, will reveal what has changed on site and what needs to be done in order to restore normal mangrove conditions. 36/67 planting efforts) showed no surviving plants. Mangrove Restoration Project one of EU’s success stories Aug 02, 2012 News 0 Comments Identified as one of EU’s success stories in the Caribbean, Guyana’s Mangrove Restoration Project (GMRP) will be highlighted at the upcoming Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) conference in Brussels this September. The EPIC Project (IUCN and MAP) is demonstrating this through various community projects from tackling droughts in Burkina Faso to coastal erosion and floods in Thailand . There are various strategies for mangrove restoration. Technically, rehabilitation or restoration of mangroves can be surprisingly easy: [ T] he single most important factor in designing a successful mangrove restoration project is determining the normal hydrology (depth, duration and frequency, and of tidal flooding) of existing natural mangrove plant communities ([i.e.,] a reference site) in the area in which you wish to do restoration (Lewis, 2005, p. 409). Since then, we have worked on mangrove monitoring; the design of living shorelines; and the design of seagrass, dune and mangrove restoration, including the planting of native vegetation throughout the region. Estimate the modifications of the mangrove environment that occurred and that currently prevent natural secondary succession. The most important is the restoration of abiotic conditions that allow natural development of mangroves. The level of survival of the restoration project sites ranged from 0 to 78% and only three sites, that is, Kalpitiya, Pambala, and Negombo, showed a level of survival higher than 50%. Additional research is needed to build successful business models around mangrove restoration. Mangroves include about 16 families and 40 to 50 species, but depending on the classification 100 species can be counted (, Mangrove restoration is an activity that fits well in the working with nature concept because mangrove forests serve as natural coastal defence. The protective function of mangrove forest can be split up in wave attenuation, windbreak and stabilization of the shoreline by retaining sediment (, The tidal movement of water is not disturbed by breakwaters; it is actually the roots of the mangroves that reduce the velocity of the water and capture sediment. However, about 200–220 ha showed successful mangrove restoration. With regard to the presence of suitable sites, it should be noted that clear-cutting of mangrove forests has often led to degradation and erosion of the soil. IUCN and The Nature Conservancy are producing a global map with cutting edge analysis on the potential for, and challenges to, mangrove restoration. The most important is the restoration of abiotic conditions that allow natural development of mangroves (interview B. van Weesenbeeck). 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