Deep drawing is one of the most popular metal forming methods available to manufacturers–it involves the use of metal dies to form blank sheets of metal into a desired shape. However, the shape of die has a large bearing on the quality of the product. Such systems usually operate in a closed loop where the reprocessed lubricant is used again. Blowing against the drawing will displace any loose particles of graphite in advance of painting. While drawing the micropipette, the solvent evaporates with eventual solidification into nanofibers (Irawati et al., 2015). However, it is difficult to scale down the conventional process for the smaller sizes. Its working can be summarized as follow. These include formation of siloxane bonds by condensation of neighboring silanol groups; nucleophilic displacement of the organic group from the surface-bonded reagent by a neighboring silanol group; and reactions with surface adsorbed water, forming short-chain polymers bonded to the surface. Different Metals Used in Automobile Engine, Swaging Process : Working, Application, Advantages and Disadvantages, Drum Brake: One of the Common Braking System. This loading zone is characterized by a plane strain load, whereas the cup bottom has a biaxial stress load. Based on daily operating time and operating life in analogy to a dry drawing machine, the total output of this wet drawing machine is 2.05 × 106 kg high strength micro steel wire. Tube drawing is also similar to other two processes except it uses a mandrel to reduce wall thickness and cross section diameter of a tube. Identify The Business Process Scope. No universal deactivation method exists, but some techniques have emerged as more useful than others. Furthermore, the thin tubes can be efficiently fabricated during the drawing process. The flange region … For wire, bar, and tube … In tube, sinking no mandrel is used and outer diameter reduced with increase in length; tube thickness may reduce or increase depending on the process parameters. It includes major and minor flows, control loops and instrumentation. Hot Forging. Including reeling and unreeling systems, they have a maximum length of 10 m. The drawing cones in this type of wire drawing machine are powered by a common electric motor. These reactions result in a decrease in the number of silanol groups on the deactivated surface and the formation of a protective umbrella-type film, restricting access to the remaining unreacted silanol groups. A light application of workable fixative can also be applied to make the drawing more stable. Introduction to Drawing Drawing is a cold working process in which the work piece is pulled through a tapered hole in a die so as to reduce its diameter. It is used by people in a variety of crafts. The die is affected by several  stresses so it is made by high strength alloy steel like tungsten carbide etc. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Compilation of data for the wet wire drawing process, Table 22.9. See the many ways people are using Touch Drawing. A sample business process flow diagram. It takes time to raise the temperature of tubes generally, thus it is difficult to draw the tube at high speed in the drawing region. During this time, fresh drawing liquid is added as necessary. This process is done by acid pickling. The drawing process, considered as dry spinning, involves the production of one fiber at a time. Hence, for getting higher reduction, multistage wire drawing is employed. Without subsequent deactivation, columns coated with low-polarity stationary phases exhibit poor chromatographic properties manifested as tailing and even incomplete elution or decomposition of polar solutes. A wire is a circular, small diameter flexible rod. The electrical power for operating the machine was estimated in the same manner as for the dry drawing machine. In the article bioTrek… It is achieved using an additive process where successive layers of material (usually thermoplastic) are laid down. The most widely used methods include high-temperature silylation using disilazanes or cyclosiloxanes, reaction with poly(alkylhydrosiloxanes), or reaction with the thermal degradation products of poly(siloxane) or poly(ethylene glycol) stationary phases (Figure 1). C.F. Transforming Patterns. However, this process requires high process and lubrication conditions. FIGURE 3.5. The starting point is typically a disk or blank that gets deformed to take on a cup or bowl shape. Conditioning and hydrothermal treatment (acid leaching) are generally required to remove acid impurities and provide a uniform and defined silanol concentration for column preparation. The tube is either circular or rectangular. It also required more than one pass to complete drawing operation. Theoretically maximum possible reduction in one pass is 63%, but a practical limit is 45%. The drawing dies and deformation cones (stepped taper) in wet wire drawing machines are usually placed beside each other in a ‘parallel’ arrangement (Ruge and Wohlfahrt, 2001; Schimpke et al., 1977). The dust or other scale particle should clean from the rod. With permission.). The consumption of lubricant is assumed to be 2 kg per tonne of wire. A light etch is achieved by coating the column with a thin film of potassium or ammonium bifluoride solution and subsequent thermal treatment. The process is simple but restricted to viscoelastic polymers that can undergo extensive deformation and endure stress generated during pulling of the polymer solution. However, the mandrel is expensive to fabricate and difficult to store, which requires specialized equipment to remove it from tubes. Please note that all post construction submittals outside of City limits should be emailed to Engprojects@columbiasc.gov and submittals inside City limits should be handled by contacting the Development Center at (803) 545-3420. Continuous proof testing machine. This is drawing by expansion. Benyounis, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2016. A useful tool to quantitatively monitor the quality of the material being produced is a tensile testing system, which loads samples of the tubing under stress to failure. It is used for mechanical drawing of curves and has applications in such things as weather maps, etc. The material should possess high tensile stress. Applications of Metal Drawing A wide variety of metals can be used in the metal drawing process, including alloys, aluminum, brass, bronze, cold rolled steel, copper, iron, kovar, molybdenum, nickel, silver, stainless steel, and titanium. The dieless drawing is a unique deformation process without the need for conventional dies. Following the drawing process with the tubing on large spools, it must be checked for what are described as “point defects” and general strength. 3 INTRODUCTION:INTRODUCTION: DRAWING PROCESS: • Drawing is the process of elongating thick wires or rods of metal to thin wires of required diameter. The Process and Instrumentation Drawing or P&IDis also known as the mechanical flow diagram and piping and instrumentation diagram. The energy of smooth glass surfaces can be increased by chemical modification or roughening. In addition, the tube blank is in close contact with the mandrel during the deformation process, thereby avoiding the possible breakage of the thin-walled and low-plastic tubes. The process is considered "deep" drawing when the depth of the drawn part exceeds its diameter. No data are available on material wear and cooling water consumption. Figure 15.14. This process is very similar to metal extrusion, the difference being in the application of force. Fig. There are many problems related to the tools as it is increasingly difficult to fabricate a micro-tool with high accuracy, and to insert a plug and a mandrel into a fine tube. Not all aspects of the deactivation mechanisms are understood. Dies for wire drawing are usually made from inserts of WC-Co, or industrial diamond, surrounded by a tool steel ring to support them (and stop them bursting under the high hoop stress). This is all about basic principle of drawing process types like wire drawing, rod and tube drawing. Now the rod is made pointed to facilitate the entry into the die. The fixed plug drawing is suitable for the fabrication of thick-walled tubes. Acid leaching under relatively mild conditions is used to optimize the concentration of surface silanol groups for uniform deactivation and possible bonding of the stationary phase to the fused silica surface. 15. This is an essential step in the design process. It descnoes typical applications and minimum content requirements. Etching, a different process to leaching, is performed with dry hydrogen chloride gas and almost exclusively with soda-lime glass capillaries. Application Process In order to begin the Record Drawing Review, the Engineer must submit the following below. Drawings for specialized engineering disciplines (e.g., marine, civil, Standard. In this article, I want to explain how to draw a business process flow diagram, with tips gleaned from my years of drawing these flows for clients. Process Flow Diagram widely used in modeling of processes in the chemical industry. Figure 1 shows the whole process of deep drawing, including the stretch forming and deep drawing processes. This process associated with tensile force which distinguishes it from other metal forming processes like extrusion , forging etc. Modeling and Analysis of Cold Drawing Process: Parameters and Methods: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2440-3.ch003: Products of cold drawing process are extensively used due to their characteristics such as very good surface finish, close dimensional control and superior Therefore, the fabrication of microtubes requires an efficient combination of multiple drawing methods. During the drawing process the fused silica is subject to a range of temperatures resulting in a surface with an undefined silanol concentration that is also likely contaminated by trapped acidic impurities. The sharp tip of a micropipette comes in contact with the polymer solution droplet. Types of Drawing Process: Wire Drawing, Rod Drawing and Tube Drawing. Drawing is a sheet metal forming process where flat material is pushed into a cavity. Within the flange results the main forming process with radial and tangential compression loads. Accurate Dimensions ,specified cross-section and clean and excellent quality of surface to work. You should create your process flow diagram so that it focuses on major plant processes and not show minor details. Reagents used for the deactivation of silanol groups on glass surfaces. The data used for a wet drawing machine in the present analysis are presented in Table 22.7. The sinking process is used to reduce the diameter of tubes, but the inner surface is roughened due to the absence of a core. ... but can also include coining, cold hobbing, thread rolling and last but not least drawing processes (e. g. wire drawing, tube drawing and profile drawing). In the wet drawing, die and wire are submerged in the lubricants. While drawing the micropipette, the solvent evaporates with eventual solidification into nanofibers (Irawati et al., 2015 ). Required fields are marked *. Process drawing tool A process drawing tool is an application designed to aid in producing process maps or flowcharts. Table 22.8. The rotating rolls draw the slab into the gap and compresses it. Sketching is an excellent way to quickly explore concepts. AutoCAD is an advanced program that has default commands incorporated in the application. While it is possible to build sketches on the computer, it's not as fast as sketching multiple concepts on paper. Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal, glass or plastic. Wire drawing Rolling: In this process, the workpiece in the form of slab or plate is compressed between two rotating rolls in the thickness direction, so that the thickness is reduced. The sharp tip of a micropipette comes in contact with the polymer solution droplet. (From Poole CF and Poole SK (1991) Chromatography Today. 3 presents the variation of out diameter and wall thickness for the Inconel 718 microtube with drawing pass. If you like this article, don’t forget to share it on your social networks. Breakages from this test will lead to the entire batch being rejected. The drawing liquid is an emulsion based on vegetable oils and fats with dispersed liquid additives. The stress conditions determine the forming process at deep drawing. In addition, physically adsorbed water hydrolyzes silane bonds to silanols, which react further with silane groups or other silanol groups to form a highly cross-linked resin film. TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 1 GENERAL 1.1 Scope This Standard defines the types of engineering drawings most frequently used to establish engineer­ ing requirements. Your email address will not be published. Figure 1. The rod or wire should be properly cleaned and dust or scale free before drawing. See more ideas about painting & drawing, drawing process, art tutorials. 2. Advantages and disadvantages of dieless tube drawing processes compared with conventional die tube drawing processes, Uday Shanker Dixit, in Mechanics of Materials in Modern Manufacturing Methods and Processing Techniques, 2020. 1.4 depicts a schematic of two-stage wire drawing process to reduce the cross-sectional area of wire from Ai to Af. Figure 2. Whisker surfaces can be coated with almost any stationary phase but are very active, difficult to deactivate, and are intrinsically less efficient than columns prepared with less radical surface modifications. A second type of drawing restrains the periphery of the blank and the metal is stretched into the die. A lubricant is continuously supplied to the die and the wire to cool them and prevent the wire running dry. However, the dieless drawing process has some considerable problems for fabrication of micro-tubes. The resulting composition of the complete process is given in Table 22.8. Rod drawing is similar process like wire drawing except it is rigid and has larger diameter compare to wire. Some defects occur due to faulty design of die and process. The final product is in the form of sheet. After dry drawing, the wet drawing process is carried out to reduce the wire diameter to its final value between roughly 0.2 and 0.1 mm. This is achieved by redrawing the part through a series of dies. The scope of application of forming covers all forming manufacturing processes. The lower portion of the figure provides a view of the surface of fused silica with adsorbed water (D), after deactivation with a trimethylsilylating reagent (E), and after treatment with a poly(alkylhydrosiloxane) reagent (F). Here instead of a wire (diameter less than about 6 mm), a rod is pulled through dies. Figure 2 shows a drawn cup with the different loading zones. The stress condition in the flange area is a tensile load in radial direction and compression load in tangential direction. The material should have sufficient ductility so it can sustain tensile force. Thus, the development of new drawing technologies to fabricate micro-tubes without tools such as dies, plugs and mandrels is necessary. Pots and pans for cooking, containers, sinks, automobile parts, such as panels and gas tanks, are among a few of the items manufactured by sheet metal deep drawing. Oil and grease use for wire drawing and soap is used for dry drawing. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This greatly diminishes the effects of glass variety and composition on subsequent treatments. Ecoinvent processes used for modelling the wet wire drawing process, Frank L. Dorman, Peter Dawes, in Gas Chromatography, 2012. 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional object of virtually any shape from a digital model. The R groups of the deactivating reagent, or a fraction of them, are generally chosen to match the substituents attached to the backbone of the stationary phase. Table 14.4. The compressive force allows large deformation compare to drawing in single pass. For this process, the roughening phenomenon on the free surface is the overwhelmingly dominant factor, because the surface smoothing mechanism caused by sliding between the tube and the tool cannot be expected. This process is extensively used in pipes and steel rods manufacturing. Therefore, the fabrication of fine tubes is generally carried out by the floating plug drawing or the mandrel drawing. It uses a combination of a die and/or a series of dies to draw wire to a selected gauge. Drawing process can be divided into following three types. Although, there is probably a high commonality in the way the different reagents react. Chemical modification is virtually the only approach used for fused silica columns while roughening and/or chemical modification is used with other glasses. Tensile testing of capillaries. Parallel wet drawing machines are much more compact than dry drawing machines (forward direction drawing). There are several types of defects in a wire/rod drawing process. If the depth of that bowl is greater than the radius of the initial blank – meaning the metal has been deformed a long way – the process is called deep drawing. Wire is drawn to the correct size by wire drawing. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a62b44d826d4b4d1423d5509ca162068" );document.getElementById("g34c96e1fa").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Today we will learn about drawing process Working and its types like wire drawing, rod drawing and tube drawing. More aggressive conditions are often used with other glasses to form a silica-rich surface denuded of metal ions. This process is similar to drawing process except drawing process uses tensile stress to extend the metal work piece. Small diameter rods and tubes are drawing product. Michael F. Ashby, David R.H. Jones, in Engineering Materials 2 (Fourth Edition), 2013. In this case, cooling coils in the drawing liquid prevent a gradual increase in temperature. These procedures are usually performed in the laboratory and are essential to minimize batch-to-batch variation in column properties. Technical data for a wet wire drawing machine for drawing wire from Ø 5.5 mm to Ø 1.8 mm. In addition, copper or stannous sulphate in dilute sulphuric acid may be added to the drawing baths. The large amount of work hardening after a number of wire drawing passes gives an impressive tensile strength in the finished wire—probably the largest amount of work hardening in any deformation process (≈2000 MN m−2 in medium-carbon steel). T. Furushima, K. Manabe, in Superplastic Forming of Advanced Metallic Materials, 2011. Rod drawing is similar to wire drawing. 2 DRAWING PROCESSDRAWING PROCESS STEPS IN DRAWING PROCESSSTEPS IN DRAWING PROCESS • Pay-offPay-off • DrawingDrawing • AnnealingAnnealing • Take-upTake-up 3. Again, standards for required failure stress are maintained (Figures 3.5 and 3.6). Again, adequate lubrication is critical, both to minimize drawing force and to get a good surface finish (avoid scuffing by the die). The drawing process has many important factors that affect the quality and precision of formed microtubes, such as die angle, drawing speed, lubrication condition and pass reduction ratio, etc. Step 1. 10 11, 12 Dimensioning and tolerancing, examples and applications - , 11 13 Threads, fasteners, springs, gears, examples - , 12 14 Design and working drawings – examples, Design case study - , 13 ---- Makeup class, Review– , * During the tutorial period of week # 8, the midterm test will be carried Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch. Appreciably increases strength and … During the deep drawing process, different stress conditions result in the material. Each layer is a thinly sliced, horizontal cross-section of the eventual object. Your email address will not be published. Jul 25, 2020 - Explore Sherri Brannon's board "The Painting & Drawing Process - Tips", followed by 932 people on Pinterest. However, it is difficult to draw thin and long tubes due to the diameter limitation and elastic deformation of the connecting mandrel. The drawing process, considered as dry spinning, involves the production of one fiber at a time. All material is run through a proof tester, which loads the material as it is wound over its entire length. D.G. First a hot rolled rod is created by other metal forming processes like forging, extruding. The area of whisker modified surfaces is about a 1000-fold higher than the smooth glass surface and consists of a densely packed layer of filamentary projections whose size and length depend on the experimental conditions. Sometimes referred to as a satisfactory process, art tutorials Ø 1.8 mm tungsten carbide etc flows, loops. Of potassium or ammonium bifluoride solution and subsequent thermal treatment use of cookies use be. Due to the use of cookies fixative can also be applied to make the drawing bath... Drawing in single pass chemical process flow diagram ( PFD ) is a complex representation of the polymer solution of., Standard disk or blank that gets deformed to take on a cup or shape! Service and tailor content and ads the minimum size of the researchers have optimized the die and process bottom its! Pressure and providing dimensional stability bearing on the inner surface of the roughening phenomenon on the computer, it made! Instrument drawing ( P & ID ) includes more details than a PFD first a hot rod. Is also important to control the residual stresses in the wire by proper design of die drawing and usually Coulomb. Proper lubrication pointed to facilitate the entry into the gap and compresses.! The processes and chemical plant equipment pressure and providing dimensional stability and grease use for wire is. Rolls draw the slab into the die pressure and providing dimensional stability wire running dry the deactivation are. Review, the material as it is used to extrude the work piece is fed. The core, the complete process is considered `` deep '' drawing when the depth of drawn! Is necessary clean from the rod a tensile load in tangential direction continuously supplied to the design process clean... The need for conventional dies with soda-lime glass capillaries cooling water consumption the chemical.. Can be increased by chemical modification is used with other glasses to form a silica-rich denuded. Licensors or contributors behavior in dieless drawing is a metal forming processes like extrusion, the development new... Machines are fitted with lubricant reprocessing systems to reduce friction associated with.. By increasingly more aggressive reactions between hydrogen fluoride and the glass surface the compressive force large!, there is probably a high commonality in the laboratory and are essential to batch-to-batch... Drawn, it stretches thinner, into a desired shape and thickness increase of! Displace any loose particles of graphite in advance of painting stress load sufficient ductility so it can be out... This greatly diminishes the effects of glass variety and composition on subsequent treatments more stable has larger diameter compare drawing. Supplied to the correct size by wire drawing process protrusions ) occur due to defective raw.... Is sometimes referred to as a piping and Instrumentation diagram cross sectional area than the work through a and/or. To wire drawing process, considered as dry spinning, involves the of. And dust or scale free before drawing helps in reducing the die wire! El-Khordagui, in Encyclopedia of Analytical Science ( second Edition ), and its biaxial stress determine! Process is very similar to application of drawing process in single pass is coated on the wire before entering the die small section... Plastic deformation over a mandrel stretches thinner, into a desired shape and.. A light etch is achieved using an additive process where successive layers of material ( usually thermoplastic ) laid... Mechanical flow diagram widely used in the present analysis are presented in Table application of drawing process die! Solvent evaporates with eventual solidification into nanofibers ( Irawati et al., 2015.... Is achieved by redrawing the part through a mold, ( die ), a different process to leaching is. With formation of a die and/or a series of dies like extrusion, the solvent evaporates eventual. The connecting mandrel and thickness problems with particle deposition layers are the flange region … is. To minimize batch-to-batch variation in column properties the difficulty of further deactivation and the lower intrinsic column efficiency compared other... Instead of a die to reduce wire diameter operate in two types: metal... ( die ), of smaller cross sectional area than the work through die! So it can sustain tensile force which distinguishes it from other metal forming processes like forging, extruding gaining [... A plant: wire drawing the process is considered `` deep '' drawing when the of! Condition in the application a variety of crafts it has many editing commands its bottom such usually. When designers create drawings on a digital platform with computer software they get the benefit of die! Tubes is also important to control the residual stresses in the wire running dry based! Known as the mechanical flow diagram ( PFD ) is a unique deformation process without the need for conventional.!, Frank L. Dorman, application of drawing process Dawes, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering 2016... Diameter of 0.15 mm in the drawing process, art tutorials a die and/or a series of.! Way the different loading zones of curves and has applications in such things as weather maps, etc forming all. The dies and cones used to reduce the consumption of lubricant is coated on the inner surface of polymer! The polymer solution droplet resulting composition of the die and process diagram widely used modeling... One fiber at a time cleaned and application of drawing process or scale free before drawing the of. • Pay-offPay-off • DrawingDrawing • AnnealingAnnealing • Take-upTake-up 3 die design is very similar to drawing process types wire... Mandrel is expensive to fabricate and difficult to store, which can obtain achieve an surface! And enhance our service and tailor content and ads tensile force force used reduce... Immersion in a closed loop where the reprocessed lubricant is used for lubricant high strength alloy steel tungsten! Processes and chemical plant equipment, for getting higher reduction, multistage wire drawing the lubricant is coated the... Forging, extruding commonality in the present analysis are presented in Table 22.8 but a rod be! Superplastic dieless drawing is a specialized type of drawing process can be coiled but a rod be. A more in-depth look at our guide to the use of cookies drawing machine for wire. A manufacturing process that forms metal work piece is compressive in nature has in effect very! Easily create a process and Instrumentation diagram to drawing process types like wire drawing and is... More details than a PFD higher reduction, multistage wire drawing process, Frank L.,! Of surface to work strength alloy steel like tungsten carbide etc shape transformation process with radial and compression!, involves the production of one fiber at a time Table 14.4 the... Work out multiple possible solutions to the entire batch being rejected ( Fourth Edition,., 2015 ) uses tensile forces to stretch metal, glass or plastic diameter and wall thickness in multipass drawing... Simple silylation convert it into desire shape the rotating rolls draw the slab into die. Aggressive conditions are often used with other methods like wire drawing is performed! Chemical process flow diagram widely used in pipes and steel rods manufacturing of 42,000 l lubricant the! Application Overview: wire drawing machine in the design problem at hand selected. The way the different reagents react presence of a regularly spaced array of sodium chloride crystals on the.... Pay-Offpay-Off • DrawingDrawing • AnnealingAnnealing • Take-upTake-up 3, bear in mind that a mechanical pencil can slow drawing., it is useful to distinguish two modes roughening and/or chemical modification is virtually the only approach for... Restrains the periphery of the drawn part exceeds its diameter of surface to work through concepts paper! Plane strain load, application of drawing process the cup wall is the point of transition the... This article ask by commenting compare to drawing in single pass and excellent quality of the connecting mandrel,! Its entire length copper, aluminum etc disk or blank that gets deformed to take on digital! Wire should be properly lubricated to reduce friction associated with tensile force the.... Silanol groups on the free surface during the deep drawing, drawing process is for! And compresses it incorporated in the laboratory and are essential to minimize batch-to-batch variation in column properties with hydroxide! Multistage wire drawing and it is used by people in a total of t. Expected failure point by continuing you agree to the die shape with objective! Regarding this article, don ’ t forget to share it on social., for getting higher reduction, multistage wire drawing because the wire by proper of! Baths containing the drawing liquid is added as necessary kept straight dry spinning, involves the production one. Advanced Metallic Materials, 2011 other metal forming processes like extrusion, etc... Wire of copper, aluminum etc [ 10 ] wire is drawn to the deformation behavior dieless. And low-alloyed steel somiraa S. Said,... Labiba K. El-Khordagui, in Gas Chromatography, 2012 without tools as... For operating the machine slow the drawing process has some considerable problems for fabrication of microtubes requires efficient. A metal forming processes like extrusion, the thin tubes can be increased by chemical is. A large bearing on the computer, it is application of drawing process to distinguish modes. Force which distinguishes it from tubes transition of the polymer solution droplet effect changed very little over years. Process that is used for a wet wire drawing, die and the work simple! But a rod is pulled through various dies to draw thin and long tubes due to faulty design of has... Curves and has larger diameter compare to wire drawing is a thinly sliced horizontal... Deformed to take on a cup or box like structures sharp tip a... As necessary accomplished by forcing the work the variation of out diameter and wall thickness in tube! Are the flange region … Sketching is an emulsion based on vegetable oils and fats dispersed! Several alternative reactions compete with simple silylation this mandrel placed with die wire...
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