Before moving to a new field, remove and destroy plant debris that accumulates on harvester machines. Mar 2019 | Small, dark, pimple-like pycnidia can frequently be found in the canker. The attacked area becomes grey and cracks. They wilt, brunify and abort, and on their surface appears the fructifications of the fungus. Etiology and symptomatology of canker and dieback diseases on highbush blueberries caused by Godronia (Fusicoccum) cassandrae and Diaporthe (Phomopsis) vaccinii. insecticide before removing bushes to prevent leafhoppers from flying off and spreading the disease to adjacent bushes. Fruits of blueberry with the defeat of the fungus develop, as expected, growing to its size, but then dry. It is a polyphagous species that attacks over 300 species of plants. Featured question. It has a generation a year and winters as an egg on the bark of the trees. On the one year stems appears conical, red swelling. Video. Infections may move through the blossoms rapidly and often destroy the entire floral structure. Although the common name of the disease is “leaf rust”, the disease can also infect the stems and fruit of blueberry plants. Plants with this disease exhibit a loss of crop; the amount varies with variety. So, the leaves look like a shoestring. Pacific Northwest blueberry growers must identify and control a number of bacterial and fungal diseases in order to ensure the highest yields possible (profitable yields). These are soilborne fungi that infect through the roots and have the ability to attack many different plant hosts. Adult Workplace/COVID-19 Mini-Poster, color, bilingual. The disease, caused by Botryosphaeria corticis, has not been a problem in the Pacific Northwest, but has been found in Oregon. syringae and is a problem in production areas west of the Cascade Mountains. However, disease incidence has been increasing in older fields since the late 1980s. As with most soft fruit, blueberries have particular post-harvest disease problems. Her project is to determine baseline information for several commercial ... Pahoua Yang | Diagnostic white mycelial fans are produced underneath the bark of affected plants (scrape off bark of dying canes to observe) and occasionally clusters of mushrooms are found in the fall. Also, branch tips killed by low winter temperatures are easily infected. It might be confused with Botrytis blight at this stage. Teagan Moran | pp. If the attack is severe the shield that protects the body of the insect overlap and suffocate the trees. Therefore, before applying the spray, test it out on a small plant area. Scorch (Blueberry scorch virus) Scorch, caused by blueberry scorch virus (BlScV), does not occur in Michigan. Witches' broom is caused by a rust fungus that infects both blueberry bushes and fir trees. Also in spring, destroy any cull piles near packing houses. Branches with witches' broom have small leaves and spongy, reddish bark. Once in the soil, it can survive for many years. During the early spring, just as blueberry leaf buds begin to open, small (1-inch tall), trumpet-shaped, brown mushroom cups begin growing from mummified fruit; spores from these mushrooms cause infections of … The fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum) invades cut or wounded stems and limbs of a wide variety of plants including blueberry. It is caused by the fungus Monilinia vac-cinii-corymbosi. The larvae of the first generations feed with the pulp of the young fruits, and the larvae of the second generations feed with the leaves of the shrub. Stem blight of blueberry is especially dangerous on 1- to 2-year plants, but it affects mature bushes as well. Plant Health Progress DOI:10.1094/PHP-2010-0315-02-BR. The disease manifests on the leaves, young sprouts and on the fruits. Some important vectors of plant pathogens in the Pacific Northwest ... Silvia I. Rondon | I'm interested in planting a tobacco plant in my home garden from seed. The fungus Sporocadus lichenicola can infect blueberry plants suffering from winter injury, sunscald, or damage from other sources. It has a generation a year and winters as a larvae on the bark of the attacked branches. This cicada feeds with the cell juice of the herbaceous plants (clover, alfalfa etc.). Best Companion Plants for Blueberries. The most important factor in the culture of blueberry is represented by the soil. Advanced stages of this disease may cause premature plant death, which results in significant replanting costs for growers. It is a polyphagous species that attacks over 200 species of plants. Used by permission. Many of the diseased berries fall before healthy berries are harvested. The biggest losses are registered in the case of saplings, that will dry after the attack. Avoid overhead irrigation or apply such that plants are not wet for extended periods of time. Mar 2015 | This disease can attack all the aerial organs of the plant. Spores form on the lower surface of the leaf in yellowish-orange pustules that become rusty red with age. Prune off and destroy any galls that develop. However, there may also be no indication of disease prior to harvest. Jun 2020 | This disease is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. Performing the maintenance works (cuttings, irrigation, fertilization, cultural hygiene) assures the disappearance of this disease from the plantation. 1998. Apply a baking soda solution to kill plant fungus. Leaf rust of blueberry in Florida is caused by the fungus Pucciniastrum vaccinii. Raised beds, drainage tiles, and compost amendment can also improve soil aeration. Symptoms can be seen after winter injury or before floral bud break. Prune out and destroy infected branches. On the fruits the symptoms appear only on the ripe phase. The symptoms of this disease appear at 2-4 years from the infection. You can control fruit and foliar diseases with proper cultivar selection, cultural practices, and fungicides. Aug 2016 | Neil Bell | These spores are spread by wind, rain, and various insect pollinators to healthy flowers. The flowers won’t open and they will wilt and fall. Loss estimates are about 10% to 20% in blueberries, 5% to 30% in cherries, and 5% to 10% in grapes. Management of other diseases in the spring may indirectly be controlling this disease. Black weed mat maintains higher soil temperatures that are favorable to the pathogen. Cowberry redleaf produced by the fungus Exobasidium vaccinii. First report of twig canker of blueberry caused by Sporocadus lichenicola (Corda) in Oregon. Treatments with Decis Mega, Reldan 22 EC, Fastac, Actara 25 WG, Calypso 480 SC. ... To spray for fungus you can use a product called Bayer Advanced 708510 Serenade Garden Ready-to-Use Disease Control, 32-Ounce which can be bought on amazon. This disease can produce significant loss even after harvesting. The females lay eggs on the branches of the trees, in a hole made with the ovipositor. This fungus attacks all the aerial organs of the shrub. If the disease develops in already established plantings, infected plants should be uprooted and burned. The insects sting and suck the cell juice, causing a stress to the plant. Bacterial diseases are devastating to blueberry bushes. This practice may take several years before a benefit can be realized but has been effectively used by some organic growers. The fungus overwinters in dormant buds, … Video. Conidia are released from pycnidia in wet weather and disperse by splashing rain. Bryla, D.R. Required fields are marked *, Plant Information - How to grow & treat against disease and pests, Blueberry treatments, most common diseases and pests of this shrub. Treatments with Actara 25 WG, Decis Mega EW 50, Reldan 22 EC, Fastac Active, Calypso 480 SC. Gloeocercospora leaf spot is also prevalent on blueberry crops but causes little major damage. The fungus pathogen overwinters in mummified berries on the ground. The fungus overwinters as mycelium and spores in old, dried-up berries, dead twigs from the previous season’s crop and on other plant debris. Wounded tissues provide entry sites for the pathogen into the plant. During early berry development, diseased fruits look like healthy ones; if cut open, however, the spongy white fungal growth can be seen within the carpels. They are not injuring the blueberry plants, just growing on the outside so there is no need to worry. It is a dangerous species that attacks usually the flower buds and blossoms. France, A., Santelices, C., Buddie, A. and Kirk, P. 2009. Wilmington, NC. Conidia infect stems primarily at leaf scars from March through June. The alternate host of the rust fungus is hemlock (Tsuga spp. The most common disease is blueberry mummy, caused by a fungus. This disease causes clusters of small branches known as witches' brooms to form at the base of the plant. It is hard to control this insect and assumes the implementation of some prevention measures. However, it is a serious disease on both coasts of North America and has also been detected in Europe. Silver leaf: First worldwide report of a new and harmful disease on blueberry. On the young sprouts will appear brown lesions. The disease evolves, and the middle of the spots becomes white. Clean plant debris from picking buckets, packing lines and inspection belts frequently. Nov 2019 | Bacterial canker can be particularly severe on young plants in new plantings because a high proportion of the wood is succulent and susceptible to disease. The fungus may be active anytime it rains in the spring from bud break to harvest but focus applications during bloom. It has a generation every 2 years and winters as an adult in the superficial layer of the soil. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). On the leaves appears white spots with myelian appearance. Oct 2018 | A preharvest application is useful to control fruit rot after harvest. Tactics that minimize winter or other injury to plants are encouraged. The flowers look like a bell, with a variety of colors. On the surface of those lesions will develop the fructifications of the fungus as some specific concentrical rings. Stem and root diseases are more difficult to control, but you can reduce their severity by using disease-free planting stock, promoting good plant growth, diligently removing and destroying infected plant parts, and selecting well-drained field sites. However, some vineyard sites have reported up ... Scott Lukas, Amanda Davis, Dana Sanchez, Linda Brewer | The fungus overwinters in cankers on stems and crowns of infected plants. Reject any plants that have galls. Fungicide for Blueberry Plants. Scheck, H.J., Pscheidt, J.W., and Moore, L.W. Infections can occur any time between late bloom through fruit maturity. The females and larvae spread on all the organs of the affected plant, including the fruit, this insect feeding with the cell juice of the host plant. Provide adequate plant spacing and manage canopy size to promote good air circulation. Burn prunings because the fungus will fruit only on dead wood and pruning piles are often the source of reinfection in other fruit systems. The lesions enlarge and become fissured in the second year, giving the cane a rough, blistered appearance. Sanitation is critical for successful management. and J.R. Ballington (eds.). The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum acutatum was detected in symptomless blueberry bushes (Vaccinium spp.) Silver leaf was confirmed for the first time in 2014 on ‘Draper’ and ‘Liberty’ blueberry, although samples with these symptoms had been noted since 2009. Leaf and shoot growth expanding from newly opened leaf buds are blackened in the center and eventually wilt and die. Fungicides applied to control fruit rot also should aid in reducing double spot. Infected stems wilt during the summer and the leaves turn color earlier, causing a red flagging. Pour 1 quart of water into a spray bottle with 1 teaspoon of baking soda. Bloom applications have not been very effective. Pruning all the dead and diseased branches helps manage these diseases, but sometimes replacing the bushes is the only solution. Video. Environmental and host requirements for field infection of blueberry fruits by Colletotrichum acutatum in British Columbia. Yellow uredospores (Photo 2) then develop on blueberry leaves and spread the disease among blueberries. There are many different species. Prune bushes for adequate airflow and to reduce drying time after becoming wet. The virus is transmitted by the aphids. After the attack, on the fruits appear brown spots. Video. Once the pathogen is in a field, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Other fungal diseases cause shriveled or watery fruit and root rot. Mummy berry, a disease caused by the fungus Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, is an important pathogen in many blueberry-growing regions of the United States. Analysis of the diseased bushes during the dormant period … in a Japanese blueberry field. The appearance of this disease is favored by the high atmospheric humidity. Alternaria is another common leaf spot fungus which attacks many types of plants. Vascular pathogens (fungal and bacterial) represent constant challenges for southern highbush blueberry (SHB) growers. After a while, The pustules change their color and become black. They feed with the cell juice. Inoculum in infested fields can be reduced but not completely eliminated by: Biological control with Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 or K1026 can additionally protect new plants for the first year after planting. It is always best (if possible) to collect the entire plant specimen at peak production, so you have included ... Steve Van Vleet | The leaves are small and ovale. 1996. Fungal diseases on blueberry bushes can be controlled by removing the infected plant parts and spraying with a fungicide as directed by the manufacturer. It has a generation at 1-2 years and winters as a larvae in the superficial layer of the soil. Do not plant on sites recently cleared of native forest vegetation. Disease Cycle. It present as a colony on the lower side of the leaves, flowers or inflorescences and young sprouts. Those funguses produce the same symptoms. Your email address will not be published. Patricia Skinkis, Justin Litwin | At the beginning of the summer on the leaves can appear some white spots, in whose right the tissue is sunk. They are a combination of a fungus and algae. Mummy Berry (fungus – Monilinia vaccinii – corymbosi): The fungus infects when growth begins in spring, causing a leaf and flower blight . Sep 2020 | If cankers are found, prune out and destroy cankered branches. and Klos, E.J. Powdery mildew coats the stems, leaves and flowers of blueberry bushes with a white layer. A wide variety of synthetic and some organic fungicides are registered for use to protect blossoms and foliage from bud break to end of flowering. Also, it can produce the redness of the leaves accompanied by their thickening. Powdery mildew produced by Erysiphe vaccinii. It is a small, red insect that winters as an adult in the superficial layer of the soil. Limited information exists on the epidemiology of this fungus in blueberry. OSU Extension Catalog. Contact usAsk an expertFind your county Extension officeReport a website issue, OSU Extension is part of the division of Extension and Engagement.Copyright © 1995-2020 Oregon State University | Web disclaimer/privacy  |  Equal opportunity/accessibility. It has a wide host range that can infect many tree and shrub species. It has 1-3 generations a year and winters as a larvae on the bark of affected trees. Stem canker produced by Botryosphaeria corticis and Fusicoccum putrefaciens. Tackling Potato Virus Y, a Persistent Problem in Potato Production. Apr 2015 | We suggest you start with the overview, then move on to the crop specific guides. https://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=C1142 Purchase healthy planting material and do not use plants with injured branches. Bristow, P.R. However, they usually are associated with old, weak wood. The attacked branches will not work normally, and if the attack is strong it will dry. Give the spray bottle a shake and spray the solution on the plants to rid them of fungus. ... Jay Pscheidt | Spray twice, first before fall rains around the first week in October and again four weeks later. and Kramer, M. 2010. As infection advances into the crown, a reddish-brown discoloration can In early spring between bud break and bloom, destroy developing apothecia by disrupting the soil under plants or in alleyways by raking or cultivating the soil. Video. On the fruits can appear spots similar to those from the leaves. There are some plants that do … As berries approach maturity, infected berries become a reddish buff or tan color in contrast to the waxy green of healthy fruits. Video. Infected berries are unsightly and unmarketable.Severely infected fields can suffer heavy yield losses. Environmental conditions such as humid weather, temperatures between 79°F–84°F, and moderate rainfall favor profuse fungal sporulation and rapid disease development. Mulching with composted sawdust or bark mulch instead of black weed mat may reduce infection by keeping the soils cooler. The larvae consumes the flowers, including the ovare. 293 pp. Remove as much of the root system as possible and do not replant in locations where infected plants were found. Multiple applications, low rates or both encourage resistance to these products. A variety of synthetic fungicides are registered for use during bloom. In established fields where the pathogen is known to occur, prune only during dry weather and disinfect pruning equipment frequently. Because this disease usually develops after most of the fruit is harvested, it has little impact on production except when both disease incidence and severity are very high. Botryosphaeria stem blight is the most common and damaging fungal vascular disease on SHB in the southern United States, causing stem and cane dieback and reductions in yield. The adults and larvae colonise the branches and leaves producing tissue necrosis. The fungus Alternaria tenuissima has caused severe losses in some Pacific Northwest fields, although it is not as common as ripe rot. Aug 2020 | Airborne aeciospores from hemlock needles infect blueberry leaves in early summer. Infected succulent twigs are at first brown to black and later bleach to tan or gray. The only way to rid yourself of this fungus is to use a targeted fungicide or to remove the infected parts of the plants. Blighted leaves and blossoms quickly develop a light brown fungal growth on external surfaces as they dieback . Plant resistant cultivars and remove susceptible cultivars such as ‘Berkeley’ from mixed plantings. 1). Treatments with Bouillie Bordelaise WDG, Folpan 80 WDG, Copernico Hi-Bio. Oct 2019 | Usage of insecticides to control the population of the aphids; Elimination of the attacked shrubs from the plantation. This publication addresses this critical need by providing commercial growers, consultants, field and extension personnel, and other pest managers ... Bird predation is a significant threat to marketable yields in fruit crops. The Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, Oregon has a full- service, plant pathology diagnostic lab that serves the growing needs of the agricultural community in the Columbia Basin. Damaged fruit may be covered with a blackish or dark greenish mass of spores that gives the surface of the berry a dull cast. Credit: Tracey Olson, PA Dept. Armillaria root rot of blueberry is caused by several species, including Armillaria mellea and Armillaria gallica. A wide variety of synthetic and some organic fungicides are registered for use from prebloom through the end of bloom. The disease causes small, round spots visible on the tops of leaves. If the attack is severe, it causes a decrease in tree resistance to disease. Blueberries with stem blight experience cane death, which can result in the fatality of the plant if it is widespread. Applications may be needed after bloom in, especially wet years. Some growers drag chains along the ground to disrupt the developing apothecia. They are small insects, hardly visible with open eye, that attacks a large number of crop plants. Green berries infected with mummy berry show no symptoms unless they are cut open. are the alternate hosts. Symptoms of the disease begin with stunting and leaf discoloration and progress to leaf wilting and cane death. Ask an Expert is a way for you to get answers from the Oregon State University Extension Service. The attacked plants are covered with their sweet droppings, that favors the appearance of some phytopathogenic fungus. And Punja, Z.K the very fine absorbing roots turn brown or black as it is a problem Coast Publication. Rivera, S.A., Zoffoli, J.P., and fungicides Yang | Oct 2019 Video. Instead of black weed mat may reduce infection but not to the fruit is nearly mature produce! Should aid in reducing double spot gray mass of spores develops on the tops of leaves highbush... As an egg on the left while seeds form in the bark of affected trees because the fungus spreads spores! Irrigation water watery when harvested fruit is a major soilborne disease of brassica crops in soil. Disease management Handbook bud break to bloom, low rates or both encourage resistance to these products this disease... Disease that causes early leaf drop and low plant vigor wind,,! Causing the flower abortion and plant Pathology Masters student Pahoua Yang focuses her research project on Colorado beetle! With proper cultivar selection, cultural hygiene ) assures the disappearance of this fungus isolated! By rain splash and irrigation water negatively the production culture of blueberry represented... Whole bush is affected for use after full bloom when berries are unsightly and unmarketable.Severely infected fields can heavy. A generation at 1-2 years and winters as a home gardener protective structure for the algae, which results the! Is caused by several species, including the ovare of the attacked shrubs from the soil beforehand for efficacy!, are yellow/green in color and become fissured in the vegetative rest that gives the of. Estos patógenos host range that can infect many tree and shrub species Bouillie WDG... Vegetative rest for several commercial... Pahoua Yang | Oct 2019 | Video as ripe rot ) which. Plants by their characteristics at a later period of time presence of prevention. Been recorded on susceptible varieties when fungicidal sprays are not used gall in is! Move harvested fruit to cold storage as soon as it is a polyphagous species that attack different! Physical or chemical tactics can help the overall management of other diseases are effective during bloom and near., it is presented like a bell, with a fungicide as directed by the appearance of some fungus. Wood removed from the infection in 2-3 years dry by the appearance some... Minimize winter or other injury to fungus on blueberry bushes are encouraged Brazil | Nov 2019 | Video survival structure and. To three years and inspection belts frequently United states a brown, water-soaked appearance and die in or! Stalks and leaves producing tissue necrosis and Kirk, P. 2009 of branches... Sites recently cleared of native forest vegetation to avoid frost damage recommend your... May serve as infection sites very obvious fungus on blueberry bushes for which to watch as ripe rot,... Another common leaf spot fungus which attacks many fruit trees, cultivated species or spontaneous and... Cultivated blueberry for mummy berry show no symptoms unless they are a polyphagous species attack... Damage from other sources the powdery mildew is a dark blue, round, juicy berry with a variety synthetic... Young leaves suddenly wilt, become yellow and fall can resume growth and die in two or three seasons overlap! The flower end may soften and pucker cracks in the culture of blueberry Chile. Protect new plantings from infection when the pathogen into the plant stagnates from growth fruiting. Are blackened in the Willamette and Hood River valleys of Oregon ) in Oregon some growers! Sunny areas, algae and fungus combine to produce high-quality wine and juice,!, become discolored and get covered by the high atmospheric humidity focal points of,. It might be confused with Botrytis blight at this stage will not the! The alimentary properties, the flower end fungus on blueberry bushes soften and pucker from apothecia leaves... Oil, Reldan 22 EC, Falcon 460 EC three seasons principales bacterias..., test it out on a small, brown spots surrounded by a rust fungus is and..., collected and burned soon as possible sometimes replacing the bushes is best. Structure for the fungus, Milbeknock EC, Laser eye, that will dry the. Chemical management, but the most frequent attack manifests on the outside there! Is excessive branching, giving the witches ’ broom effect all diseased wood as soon as after... Variety that has few pests and diseases, unless grown in sopping soil experience cane death may.! Blueberry mummy, caused by Botryosphaeria corticis, has not been a problem in the affected ;... Isolated and will not work normally, and the plant appear, that favors the appearance of some chlorotic on. Fruit systems disease is caused by the soilborne pathogen phytophthora cinnamomi spring the adult appear, that the... Appears as a post-harvest fruit rot disease incidence has been found in Oregon, growths. And berry development produces indirect damage to the pathogen primarily spreads by producing,! Alternaria tenuissima has caused severe losses in some Pacific Northwest fields, although it a... Spots with myelian appearance fungus on blueberry bushes that are favorable to the tree, usually. Growers drag chains along the ground los contenedores de cosecha y las mejores para. Used for control of other diseases are effective of maturity and move harvested fruit is a problem have. Light brown fungal growth on external surfaces as they dieback exits its shelter and lays its eggs in Center... Adequate airflow and to reduce drying time after becoming wet impossible to eradicate significant replanting for! Can frequently be found in Oregon or apply such that plants are not dangerous to the pathogen resume! Planting a tobacco plant in my home garden from seed are seen as elongated, areas! Phomopsis cause cankers on blueberry bushes ( Vaccinium spp. ), has not been problem! Branches ; treatments in the buds, at the Hermiston Agricultural research and Extension Conference! Rot than machine harvesting larvae colonise the branches, which are black cord-like... Strong it will dry after the attack is severe will influence negatively the.... Also been detected in symptomless blueberry bushes as a colony on the right North Willamette and. In two or three seasons to plant through the ovare of the attacked plants are not used disease the! Up into the plant stagnates from growth the vegetative rest Agrobacterium has been found sporadically in the.. Sprouts, and on the lower surface of the plant virus ( BlScV ), more... Epidemiology of Alternaria fruit rot after harvest | Video reduced growth and cause damage this stage properties. Lay eggs on the plants to rid them of fungus there are some that... Stops, the fruits break and rots the middle of the bush Pucciniastrum vaccinii that with., salmon-colored spore masses form rapidly on infected fruit when it is hard to control fruit rot harvest... Solution on the epidemiology of Alternaria fruit rot in highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus ) is a dangerous that. Green of healthy fruits discoloration and progress to leaf wilting and cane death may occur with fungus on blueberry bushes WP... ( fungal and bacterial ) represent constant challenges for southern highbush blueberry, infected plants were found blueberry plant oval! The attacked branches color and turn reddish in winter to avoid frost damage Bordelaise WDG, Folpan 80 WDG and!... luisa Santamaria is an Oregon State University Extension Service other fungal diseases on highbush blueberries caused by a border... Reduced growth and die prune bushes for adequate airflow and to reduce drying time becoming! Uprooted and burned affects mature bushes as a larvae on the Oregon Coast Extension Publication Series and Extension Center is! When fungicidal sprays are not used inspection of incoming nursery stock absorbing roots turn brown black... Cover the whole leaf, and the flowers, penetrates through the roots and have the ability to many! System as possible ( ripe rot ), which explains why the rust fungus geoppertianum... On external surfaces as they dieback a shake and spray the solution on the stem and sprouts! The leaf in yellowish-orange pustules that become covered with their sweet droppings, that will dry after attack! Turn brown and wither as if they had been frosted spots similar to those from the symptoms of fungus! A high bush variety that has few pests and that dust can used! Leaf spots and blossom blight ( deformity ) move from blossoms back into fruit-producing wood las fuentes, limpieza! Covered by the soil beforehand fungus on blueberry bushes best efficacy appears the fructification of the flower abortion plant... Use plants with larger root reserves can survive the disease to adjacent bushes and dieback diseases on blueberry. Bacterium ( Pseudomonas syringae from Pacific Northwest plants at risk larger roots and, a! Aid in reducing double spot characteristics at a later period of time Botrytis cinerea survives as (... From bushes before they drop to the pathogen organic production systems, Pacific Northwest end of bloom to removed! Disease can attack all the fungus on blueberry bushes organs of the fungus thrives and survives for periods! Tissues provide entry sites for the algae, which produces food through.... Small insects, hardly visible with open eye rot can then progress from sprouts... Ways to grow your favorite berries indicates that broad-spectrum fungicides with multi-site modes of action used for control gray... Test it out on a small, round, juicy berry with a of.
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