Sponges play a vital role in the economic and comercial growth of our society. Marine sponge-derived antibacterial compounds and their effects. The most promising constituents with antibacterial properties reported from marine sponges include: agelasine D, cribrostatin 3 and 6, petrosamine B, psammaplin A and alkylpyridines (haliclonacyclamine E, arenosclerins) and among these constituents, manzamine A and psammaplin A are in preclinical trials. Antifouling compounds derived from sponges were found to be very effective, environmentally friendly biocides and less toxic [205]. Sponges and their associated microorganisms have also been identified as having significant biotechnological potential. Spongistatin a macrocyclic lactone polyether isolated from Spongia sp. In the recent study, Streptomyces sp. In addition to the unusual nucleosides, other classes of substances such as bioactive terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, alkaloids, cyclic peptides, peroxides, and amino acid derivatives (which are frequently halogenated) have been described from sponges or from their associated microorganisms. However, ara-A is capable of inhibiting a cyclovir-resistant HSV and VZV (varicella-zoster virus) [109]. the followings are the uses of sponges. All the isolated compounds along with Streptomyces sp. Fungicides which are presently being used are less diverse than antimicrobials, and the usage of many of them is restricted because of their toxic effects to animals, plants and humans. Four cyclostellettamines, cyclostellettamine A, cyclostellettamine G, dehydrocyclostellettamine D and dehydrocyclostellettamine E inhibited histone deacetylase derived from K562 human leukemia cells with IC50 values ranging from 17 to 80 mm [189]. It benefits in blood distribution in high efficiency during patching operation … 5) Ecological and economical importance of Porifera is that it is in all aquatic habitats, microbial sumbionts, and creates habitats for other organisms, sponge beds are also “hotspots” for diversity. Ara-C (cytarabineor1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine) recently used for the cure of leukemia [19, 20] and its combination with Daunoribicin and other anticancer drugs, is screened in clinical trials for the treatment of acute myeloid neoplasms [21] During the last few years several marine derived natural compounds are in the pipeline for evaluation in Phase I–III clinical trials for various cancers treatment [22]. Several studies revealed that many natural bioactive components isolated from various marine sponges can be useful for the production of new antibiotics and antimicrobial drugs. "Sponges are marine animals of great importance to the ecosystem, and also to humans," Professor Idan explains. The first discovered antibiotic from a marine sponge was manoalide, a seterterpenoid isolated from Luffariella variabilis [82]. marine sponge in 1993 was shown to inhibit microtubule assembly, mitosis, and the binding of tubulin to vinblastine thereby inducing cytotoxic cell death in numerous cancer cell lines [27, 28]. and Cinachyrella sp. exhibited antiparasitic activities. Xestospongic acid ethyl ester (207) was found to inhibit the Na+/K+ ATPase [190]. Integrating patient safety education into early medical education utilizing cadaver, sponges, and an inter-professional team. Sponges also offer some interesting applications to the medical world. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. In contrast to the experiments of Hill et al. Antiviral compounds from marine sponges and their effects. A number of new alkaloids were isolated from the marine sponge Agelas mauritiana: (+)-2-oxo-agela-sidine C, (−)-8′-oxo-agelasine D,4-bromo-N-(butoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide, ageloxime B, and (−)-ageloxime D and some of these isolated components exhibited antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, antileishmanial activity in vitro and antibacterial activity against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in vitro [203]. Ara-A has been used for the treatment of herpes virus infections, but it is less efficient and more toxic than acyclovir [107, 108]. Adociaquinone B and 3-ketoadociaquinone B were the most potent inhibitors of the Cdc25 B phosphatase inhibitory activities, and the dihydro-benzothiazine dioxide in compounds Adociaquinone A, Adociaquinone B, 3-Ketoadociaquinone A, and 3-Ketoadociaquinone B appeared to be an important structural feature for this enhanced activity. The preclinical results reported that Renieramycin M, a natural constituent from sponge induced lung cancer cells apoptosis through p53-dependent pathway and may inhibit progression and metastasis of lung cancer cells [24]. Thus, the detailed pharmaceutical studies to investigate the mechanism of action and clinical trials are needed. One of the remarkable properties of sponges is their ability to suffer damage and regenerative capacity [6, 7, 8]. Built by scientists, for scientists. Sponges feed on microscopic organisms (protozoa, bacteria and other small organisms in water) and organic particles [3]. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Biological and Medicinal Importance of Sponge. Herencia and coworkers [156] studied the effects of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from some Mediterranean marine invertebrates on carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Thinking that the sponges were medical errors and might have caused patient deaths increased the students’ awareness of the importance of addressing medical errors in their future careers. Dutch researcher Nicole de Voogd has investigated the possibilities for rearing sea sponges in Indonesia. Candida albicans is most often associated with serious invasive fungal infections, but other Candida species and yeast-like organisms (Blastoschizomyces, Trichosporon and Malassezia) have emerged as etiological agents of severe mycoses problem [123, 124, 125, 126]. 1 mm, and moderate activity toward PfPK5, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family [188]. Purpuroines A-J, halogenated alkaloids isolated from Lotrochota purpurea marine sponge showed promising inhibitory activities against bacteria and fungi related diseases [201]. Reports suggest that marine invertebrates represent new marine resources for the isolation of novel agents which are active on inflammatory conditions have also been found in the literature. "They feed by filtering particles or … Several of these substances have a great potential for drug development. By George Andrei Draghici, Cristina Deheleana, Razvan Susan, Delia Berceanu-Văduva and Dragoş Nica. The Importance of Fish and Other Sea Life in Medical Research. Marine sponges are among the richest sources of interesting chemicals produced by marine organisms. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. sponge [spunj] a porous, absorbent mass, as a pad of gauze or cotton surrounded by gauze, or the elastic fibrous skeleton of certain species of marine animals. Sponges are multicellular, heterotrophic parazoan organisms, characterized by the possession of unique feeding system among the animals. Although thousands of chemical compounds have been reported in the literature from these sponges, only few of them are clinically described. … Some of these sponges contain substances of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The other analogs was either less potent or inactive, and a rationalization for this SAR pattern was also reported [187]. What is the economic importance of sponges? More than 5300 different natural products are known from sponges and their associated microorganisms, and every year hundreds of new substances are discovered. In the last decade studies reported that marine sponges could have been a source of hypocholesterolemic compounds. What Is the Importance of Platyhelminthes? sponge from Korea resulted in isolation of novel cyclic bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums and cyclostellettamines, which showed moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial activities against A549 cell-line and Gram-positive strains, respectively [202]. "Sponges rely on chemicals to ward off predators, protect reproductive products, avoid being overgrown by neighbours, fight disease or recover from illness or injury," Dr Evans-Illidge says. [200] extracted novel lysophosphatidylcholines from marine sponges with hypocholesterolemic properties and thereby aroused an interest of compounds from marine sponge due to short lifespan of conventional lysophosphatidylcholines in vivo. Another marine sponge component, heteronemin a sesterterpene isolated from Hyrtios sp. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Literature studies have shown sponge-derived discodermolides antitumor compounds can play remarkable role in future to treat cancer. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Screening for immune response modifiers from marine origin, Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities, Immunomodulating Properties of Bioactive Compounds Present in Aurora globostellata Books > Biological Resources of Water. Students were highly satisfied with the seminar with 94% rating the day as good to excellent. Hirudin substance is extracted from its saliva , It is used in making anticoagulant drugs and in treatment of inflammation of the middle ear . Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Around 850 antibiotic constituents are reported from marine sponges [81]. Sponge - Sponge - Natural history: Most sponges reproduce sexually, although asexual reproduction may also occur. The shapes of their bodies are adapted for maximal efficiency of water flow through the central cavity, where it deposits the nutrients, and leaves through a hole called the osculum. The immunomodulatory potential was evaluated by oral administration of ethyl acetate extract of marine sponge (200 mg/kg) to Wistar rats and the results obtained showed that extracts exhibited immunosuppressant activity and can further be studied [197]. (1984) with fission neutrons, no increased transformation frequencies were observed when the -particle dose was protracted over several hours. Anyone who is intrigued by the idea of working in the OR, but isn’t interested in medical or nursing school, may find their match in a surgical technologist career. As a result of all these investigations, bioassay-directed separation of active extracts identified many structurally diverse compounds as future leads. Medicine from the Sea From slime to sponges, scientists are plumbing the ocean’s depths for new medications to treat cancer, pain and other ailments These findings suggested that the sponge associated bacterial strain Virgibacillus sp. Literature studies revealed that 70% of naturally derived antibiotics which are currently in clinical use have been derived from actinomycetes. Sponge got its name because of its body full of holes or what we call spores. Natural antifouling molecules from marine have been recently reviewed and researches hope that will provide more specific and less toxic antifouling activity in future. The compounds, namely haminols, saraine and 3-alkylpyridinium salts extracted from Reniera sarai, Haliclona sp. For some of these isolated substances important antiviral activities were reported. M. Radiopaque counted sponges should not be used for dressings for the following reasons: (1) If the final count has not yet been completed, use of counted sponges as dressings could contribute to an incorrect count. Sponges are being researched and used for the treatment of viruses, leukemia, cancer, and even HIV. Extracts prepared from the sponge’s species Petromica citrina, Haliclona sp. Bioactive constituents are claimed for potent in vivo or in vitro activity against infectious and parasitic diseases, such as bacterial, fungal, viral and protozoan infections. There are more than 5,000 different species of sponge, some of which live in freshwater and others in salt-water. Available from: Marine sponge-derived compounds with enzyme inhibitory activity, Sponge-derived immunosuppressive compounds and their efficacy, Marine sponges-derived antifouling and antibiofilm compounds, H522-T1, MDA-MB- 435, U937 tumor cell lines, Human epidermoid carcinoma KB, murine leukemia L1210, SK-OV-3 (ovary), MCF-7 (breast) HL-60 and U937, P338, BXPC-3 MCF-7, SF-268 NCI-H460, KML20L2, and DU-145 cell lines growth, SF-268, H460,MCF-7, HT-29, and CHOK1 (mammalian cell line), PC3, Vero, MRC5, HL60, HL60R, K562, PaCa, SF268, A549, MDA231, MDA435, HepG2, and EPC human tumor cells, LNCap, PC3MM2, PC3, DU145 (Prostrate), MDA361, MCF7, MDA231 (breast), OVCAR3, SKOV3, U87MG (Glioma), (ovarian), A498 (renal), (E)-10-benzyl-5,7-dimethylun-1 deca,5,10-trien-4-ol, 4,5-Dihydro-6”-deoxybromotopsentin, bis(indole), Isojaspic acid, cacospongin D, jaspaquinol, Manzamine A, 8-hydroxymanzamine A, 6-deoxymanzamine X neokauluamine, Avarol 6′-hydroxy avarol, 3′-hydroxy avarone, Leukemia virus, mouse influenza virus, mouse corona virus, Geodisterol-3-O-sulfite, 29-demethylgeodisterol-3-OCl-sulfite, 3,5-Dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy) phenol, Inhibited production of TNF-α, IL-1 PGE2, and LTB4, Moderate activity to inhibit mammalian PLA2, A high potency against 12-human, 15-human and 15-soybean LOX, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated J774 macrophages, Inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C, Against 6-keto-PGF1α release in a human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Sponges (Porifera) are a predominantly marine phylum liv-ing from the intertidal to the abyssal (deepest ocean) zone. Anti-inflammatory compounds found in the marine environment include terpenes and steroids, alkaloids, peptides and proteins, polysaccharides and others. Among marine invertebrates, marine sponges (phylum: Porifera) is the most dominant responsible group for discovering significant number of natural components, which has been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. Marine sponge-derived compounds showing enzyme-inhibitory activities. Antifungal Cyclic Peptides from the Marine Sponge Microscleroderma sp. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Ara-A is a semisynthetic compound, based on the arabinosyl nucleosides, that inhibits viral DNA synthesis [105]. Traditional medicine in Asia and elsewhere frequently uses marine animals, including dried sponges, corals and jellyfish, shells of crabs, oysters, conch and other mollusks, pearls and cuttlefish ‘bones’, sea cucumbers, sea horses and many other marine animals to prepare powders, ointments and decoctions for many ailments. Perhaps the most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is the nucleoside ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from the sponge Cryptotethya crypta. Moreover the progress in this area is slow as comparison to antibacterial agents [126]. Anti-inflammatory compounds from marine sponges and their effects. … Sponges are in danger – not the ordinary synthetic kind you use to wash dishes in the kitchen sink, but living marine sponges (called Porifera by experts) in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, West Indies, Indian Ocean and elsewhere around the globe. Importance. Studies revealed that the crude extracts of marine sponge have shown high incidences of antibacterial activity against terrestrial pathogenic bacteria, but very low incidences of antibacterial activity against marine bacteria [77, 78]. Antifungal compounds from marine sponges and their effects. The sponges or poriferansare animals of the phylum Porifera. But still, there is much demand for the natural sponge. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. They consume food and excrete waste products within cells without a body cavity [14]. Haliclona sp. These results indicate the potential of lectin for treating cancer [29]. Thus the bacterial actinomycetes from marine sponges and other marine organisms have been proved prolific producers of pharmacologically active compounds. Platyhelminthes, better known as flatworms, play important roles in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, and several species are dangerous parasites of humans. The economic is that they can absorb water and filter shit, Medicine. Moreover, the extensive ongoing research on sponges and development of new advanced techniques have made it possible to access deep sea, new anticancer marine isolates with unprecedented carbon skeleton and inhibitory activities of human cancer cell continued to be discovered and developed, which will offer in future the new candidate for cancer therapy. Halichondria okadai has achieved success in phase III clinical trials. Until now, in vitro antitumor activity studies of sponge-derived compounds were tested. The scientific term for sponges is Porifera meaning “pore-bearing” and has bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them, consisting of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two layers of cells [5]. Callyspongia difusa (Gulf of Mannar province) a marine sponge resulted in isolation of 10 marine bacterial strains which exhibited remarkable antagonistic activity against clinical bacterial pathogens. Therefore, marine sponges are considered a rich source of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, nutritional supplements, cosmetics, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of humans. Antifungal compounds isolated from marine sponges are listed in Table 4. One of the major causes of death in patients suffering from malignant disease is fungal infections and emerging resistance is also an important problem. 25 Gy. absorbable gelatin sponge a sterile, absorbable, water-insoluble, gelatin-base material used in the control of bleeding. Gelatin has a long and varied history in medicine, going back as far as 1834. It was demonstrated that endotoxin-free samples of marine origin possess effects on certain components of the immune system. has attracted the interest of researchers as an antimour agent especially for its pharmacological effects on chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. The best commercial sponges are found in the warm water ofthe Mediterranean Sea. In this chapter we included the most important and biologically active marine sponge-derived compounds and presented selected studies of most important bioactive and promising natural products and secondary metabolites from marine sponges. Derivatives of halenaquinone and xestoquinone showed various enzyme inhibitory activities besides the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and topoisomerase I and II inhibitory activities mentioned above. Compounds are listed in Table 6. Moreover, agelasine derivatives inhibited settling of larvae of Balanus improvisus in an antifouling bioassay as well as the growth of planktonic forms of biofilm forming bacteria S. epidermidis [206].